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Social Welfare: Recent Look/Understanding The social welfare concept took a new direction in the nineteenth century, through certain processes and not by an accident. This was an era of social and technological change with intellectual adventure. The traditional concept of social work, charity with immediate assistance did not stand in the test of the changing time. It melted away before the challenge of emerging psycho-social and economic problems hatched by speedy growth of population, rapid industrialization and urbanization gave way to the modern concept, where belief in the dignity and potentiality of human, respect for his/her personality came in the fore. And ultimately the "Lady Bountiful" was replaced by the professional social worker to give solace and relief to the suffering humanity. With the ever-increasing socio-economic problems, coupled with the wide acceptance of the concept of welfare state, the scope of social welfare as a profession has widened and got a momentum. Moreover as the history attests, substantial progress made by this profession in the shortest possible time, in the developed as well as the developing countries, has given it a firm footing and an assurance of smooth go-ahead.