Syllabus for the M.S. In Meteorology Program

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Draft)

 

Syllabus

 

 

 

 

M.S. in Meteorology and Climate Science

 Department of Meteorology

 University of Dhaka

 

 

 

August 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of contents

 

Basic Information. 3

Eligibility for admission. 3

Learning outcomes. 3

Mark distribution against grades: 3

Detail Syllabus. 4

5.1         Modules. 5

5.2         Module content. 6

5.2.1          Met 501  Physical Meteorology. 6

5.2.2          Met 502  Mathematics for atmospheric science. 7

5.2.3          Met 503 Dynamic Meteorology. 7

5.2.4          Met 504 Climatology and climate change. 8

5.2.5          Met 505  Satellite Meteorology. 9

5.2.6          Met 506 Urban climate and boundary layer. 10

5.2.7          Met 507  Synoptic and Mesoscale Meteorology. 10

5.2.8          Met 508: General Circulation (A,B). 11

5.2.9          Met 509  Tropical weather and climate. 12

5.2.10        Met 510  Agriculture and hydrometeorology. 13

5.2.11        Met 511   Aviation Meteorology. 14

5.2.12        Met 512: Statistical Applications in Meteorology. 14

5.2.13        Met 13 Applicable mathematics, Numerical Modeling Techniques and Numerical Weather Prediction   15

5.2.14        Met 14: Dissertation (Departmental or through an internship). 16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.    Basic Information

The M.S. degree in Meteorology and Climate Science is a brand new course/programme designed to provide an up-to-date, comprehensive, graduate level qualification for those who wish to pursue a career in the subject or allied disciplines.

 

The first year’s teaching provides a 44 credit, wide-ranging scientific view of both weather and climate that forms the basis for the following 12 credit dissertation during 6 months. This latter component will be undertaken either at the University or through an internship at the Bangladesh Meteorological Department for example. Thus the M. Sc., Meteorology and Climate Science is s 56 credit program.

 

Degree to be offered: M. S. Meteorology and Climate Science

Course duration: 18 months (October 2017 to March 2019)

Course credit: 56 credit: 44 taught credit (36 Theory+8 Practical) and 12 credit dissertation

Course duration

 

        * Taught component including coursework from October 2017 to September 2018

        * Dissertation in the Department or through an internship from October to March 2019

 

2.    Eligibility for admission

 

        * Applicants must be a graduate of any public of Bangladesh

        * Their first degree should include a selection from Physics, Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Geography and Environment, Environmental Science, Disaster Science, Chemistry, Ecology, Agriculture Science, Soil Science,  Hydrology, Water Resources, Oceanography and Engineering.

        * The candidate must have secured a CGPA of at least 3.0

 

        * The selection will be made based on written test and interview.

 

3.    Learning outcomes

 

         Graduates will:

 

         * understand the physical basis of, and dynamical principles that govern a wide range of atmospheric

            phenomena and be able to express their knowledge and understanding clearly,

         * be able to describe and explain the origin and evolution of tropical and extratropical weather systems across

            a range of scales,

         * know the basic physics and mathematics of application to understanding the atmosphere,

         * understand the nature of modern weather and climate prediction, including its limitations,

         * be able to produce well-written, independently-produced reports including the dissertation,

         * be able to produce quality weather analysis charts and to interpret forecast products accurately

            and in a timely way, including verbally summarising their details,

         * be able to work effectively as a member of a team, 

         * understand the importance of early warning systems, how they are set up and their critical information

            relayed to users,

         * know the relationship between agriculture and weather and climate; provide early warning and advisory to agriculture services for crop management,

         * will be able to analyze the causes of climate change and impacts, adaptation and mitigation strategy.

 

 

 

 

4.    Mark distribution against grades:                                 

 

 

Numerical Grade

Letter Grade

Grade Point

80% and above

  A +

4.00

75% to less than 80%

                 A

3.75

70% to less than 75%

A-

3.50

65% to less than 70%

 B+

3.25

60% to less than 65%

B

3.00

55% to less than 60%

 B-

2.75

50% to less than 55%

  C+

2.50

45% to less than 50%

C

2.25

40% to less than 45%

D

2.00

Less than 40%

F

0.00

 

5.    Detail Syllabus

Master of Science (M.S.)   Meteorology & Climate Science

 

The credit total for the MS is 56 and is composed of 14 modules: modules 1-13 are weighted as 4 credits each plus 12 credits for module 14, the dissertation. Each module will incorporate a practical component including experience of verbal presentation. The students will take 11 taught modules and the dissertation as describes in section.

 

The MS programme has two streams that depend on the student’s educational background. Each of the streams takes a total of 11 taught modules each having 4 credits and a dissertation of 12 credits.

 

Stream A is for those whose first degree is in mathematics, physics, engineering and other courses which are strong in mathematical or physical content. This Stream will take Met 501, 503 to 506 in the first term plus 6 out of  the rest 7 modules Met 507 to Met 513 in the second; they have the option to take any one of the modules: Met 510 or Met 511.

Stream B is for those whose first degree is in geography, earth science, agriculture and other courses that are less mathematical or physical in content. This Stream will take Met 501 to 505 in the first term plus 6 out of  the rest 7 modules Met 507 to Met 513 in the second; they have the option to take any one of the modules Met 510 or Met 511. See Table-1 for details.

 

Table-2: Distribution of Modules for Stream A and Stream B

 

Term

Stream A

Strem B

Term-1

Met 501

Met 501

 

Met 502

Met 503

Met5 03

Met 504

Met504

Met 505

Met 505

Met 506

Met 506

 

Met 507

Term-2

Met 508

Met 508

 

Met 509

Met 509

 

Met 510*

Met 510*

 

Met 511*

Met 511*

 

Met 512

Met 512

 

Met 513

Met 513

Term-3

Met 514 Dissertation

Met 514 Dissertation

*These two courses are optional; students will take any one of these course

5.1  Modules

 

Taught Modules (44 credits in total).

TERM 1

Met 501: Physical Meteorology (A,B)

Met 502: Mathematics for atmospheric science (B)

Met 503: Dynamical Meteorology (A,B)

Met 504: Climatology and climate change (A,B)

Met 505: Satellite Meteorology (A,B)

Met 506: Urban climate and boundary layer (A)

     

 

TERM 2

Met 507: Synoptic and Mesoscale Meteorology (A,B)

Met 508: General Circulation (A,B)

Met 509: Tropical Meteorology and Climate (A, B)

Met 510: Agricultural and Hydrometeorology (A, B): Optional with Met 511

Met 511: Aviation Meteorology (A, B): Optional with Met 510

       Met 512: Statistical Applications in Meteorology (A, B)

 

       Met 513: Mathematical Applications, Numerical Modeling Techniques and Numerical Weather Prediction (A,B)

 

 

TERM 3

      Met 514: Dissertation (in the Department or through an internship)

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.2  Module content

5.2.1        MetTh:501  Physical Meteorology (2 credit)

 

* Vertical structure of the atmosphere - distribution of temperature and atmospheric layers

              * Composition of the atmosphere – major and trace gases, particulate matter

              * Introduction to Radiation – short and long wave, radiation balance

             * Equation of state for dry and moist air

             * Atmospheric moisture - relative humidity, absolute & specific humidity, mixing ratio,

                relation with vapour pressure with moisture content

             * Temperature – drybulb, wetbulb, dewpoint, potential and equivalent

              * Heat transfer – convection, conduction, evaporation and condensation

              * Atmospheric stability – adiabatic lapse rates and convective cloud formation, thermodynamic     

                 charts (Skew T diagram etc.)

              * Cloud types and precipitation

              * Meteorological instruments – surface and upper-air

 

MetLab: Physical Meteorology (2 Credit)

     

  • Acquaintance with the meteorological instruments in the laboratory and in the Meteorological Observatory.
  • Measurement of air temperature, Dew point Temperature, air pressure and relative humidity and then derive the equivalent temperature, mixing ratio, vapour pressure.
  • Data of AWS are used of pressure, Temperature, humidity and wind (magnitude and Direction) from AWS. To investigate the diurnal variability of these parameters.
  • Measure the soil temperature at different depth at different time of the day and estimate the coefficient of conductivity of heat in the soil.
  • Measure the incident and reflected solar radiation using Pyranometer and calculate the albedo of bare soil, vegetated area (crops), sandy soil and wet soil.
  • Measure the incoming and outgoing long-wave radiation and estimate the radiance temperature of the surface during from 7:00 to 10:00 am.
  • Monitor radiation balance and increase of temperature from morning 7.00 am to 10.00 am for selected surface

 

 

 

Reference Books:

Shaw, Sir Napier. Manual of Meteorology, Vol. I. Cambridge University Pr, Cambridge, 1942.Google Scholar

Andrea V. Jackson, Handbook of Atmospheric Science by C. Nick Hewitt; , Wiley  2008.

Harrison.  Meteorological measurements & instrumentation,    Wiley

  Peter Hobbs.  Clouds Their Formation, Optical Properties, And Effects , Elsevier Science 2012

 

Craig F. Bohren; Eugene E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation, Wiley 2006

Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation . Elsevier Science 1981

 Fred V. Brock; Scott J. Richardson, Meteorological Measurement Systems Oxford University Press 2001;

Dwayne Heard. Analytical Techniques for Atmospheric Measurement Wiley 2008.

Giles Harrison, Meteorological Measurements and Instrumentation (Wiley) ISBN: 978-1-118-74580-9 ; 280 pages, November 2014, Wiley-Blackwell

Maarten H. P. Ambaum, 2010:  Thermal Physics of the Atmosphere (Wily). ISBN: 978-0-470-74515-1; 252 pages

Fred V. Brock; Scott J. Richardson, Meteorological Measurement Systems, Oxford University Press 2001;

Ian Strangeways, Precipitation , Cambridge University Press 2006;

R. M. Goody; Y. L. Yung, Atmospheric Radiation, Oxford University Press 1995;

Craig F. Bohren; Eugene E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation, Wiley 2006;

5.2.2        MetTh:502  Mathematics for atmospheric science (4 Credit)

*Basic functions: Indices, exponential functions, logarithms, trigonometric functions, linear function (straight lines), square, parabolic and polynomial functions.

* Vector Analysis: Definition of scalar and vector. Graphical presentation of vectors in Cartesian coordinate system; projection of vector quantity in x, y and z axis. Addition and multiplication of vectors.

* Differential and Integral Calculus: Concept of differentiation, differentiation of different functions, integration, definite integrals;

* Ordinary Differential equations: Degree and order of ordinary differential equation; solution of differential equations: Solutions of first order differential equations; Initial and Boundary value problems. Differential operators, gradient, divergence and curl of a vector, Gauss’s and Stokes Theorem, Partial differential equations; Solution of differential equation ( simple examples).

* The application of Mathematics in Meteorology: Newton’s force law, derivatives of atmospheric variables, time derivatives, advection of quantities of physical, acceleration due to gravity, pressure gradient force, transport equation (advection of physical quantities), momentum equation and continuity equation and heat equations; simplest form of prognostic equations.

 

Demonstration

  • Using the surface pressure charts, derive the derivative in x- and y- direction at selected points and calculate the pressure gradient force and geostrophic winds
  • Solve selected problems on Vector analysis
  • Solve a few exercises on solving of differential equations
  • Estimate spatial derivatives of temperature distributed in rectangular grids and estimate the advection of temperature at given wind speed.
  • Other exercises as provided by the course teacher

 

        Books:

Luther Pfahler Eisenhart, Coordinate Geometry, Dover Publishing Inc.

M. R. Spiegel.  Vector Analysis, Schaum’s Outline Series.

James Ward Brown and Ruel V. Churchil, Complex Variables and Applications, 7th Edition, Schaum’s Outline Series.

Anton. Elementary Linear Algebra, 8th edition.

George F. Simmons, Differential Equations, McGraw-Hill.

R. Kent Nagle, Edward B. Saff and Arthur David Snider, Fundamentals of Differential Equations, Addison-Wesley.

Howard Anton, Irl Bivens and Stephen Devis, Calculus, John Wiley and Sons.

M. R. Spiegel. Calculus and Analysis, Schaums’s outline series

J. Holton. Introduction to dynamical meteorology. Academic Press

5.2.3            MetTh:503 Dynamic Meteorology (4 Credit)

             

            * Pressure gradient force, Coriolis force, frictional force

            * Geostrophic and gradient winds, straight & curved flow

            * Momentum, hydrostatic, continuity and energy equations in different vertical co-ordinate     

               systems

            * Scale analysis of the equations, quasi-geostrophic and ageostrophic concepts

            * Vorticity and divergence, vertical motion, vorticity equation, stream function and velocity                     

               potential

            * Local wind systems – sea/land breezes, katabatic flow

               

                Demonstration:

  • Perform analysis of the data of pressure, temperature, humidity for selected hours and days for dry and rainy weather and link the weather with observations for the area around the Bay of Bengal.
  • Using the spatial plots of surface pressure of the for some area around Bay of Bengal using the charts obtained from BMD and or other sources,assess the x and y component of the pressure gradient and geostrophic winds 850 mb.
  • Prepare spatial plots of U and V and estimate the divergence and vorticity at selected points using U and V at the surface level at 850 mb.

 

  • Solve problems of dynamic meteorology as assigned by the course teacher.

 

  • The students will be given lessons on using computer programs for plotting the meteorological fields and derived parameters, such as vorticity, divergence, vertical velocity.

 

Books:

 

J. Holton. Introduction to dynamical meteorology   Academic Press

Ambaum,  Thermal physics of the atmosphere,   Wiley

Hoskins & James,   Fluid dynamics of the mid-latitude atmosphere,   Wiley

Hastenrath, Climate dynamics of the tropics.   Kluwer

George J.  Haltiner and Frank. L. Martin,  Dynamic and Physical Meteorology.

Maarten H. P. Ambaum, 2010:  Thermal Physics of the Atmosphere (Wily). ISBN: 978-0-470-74515-1; 252 pages

Dynamic and Physical Meteorology by George J Haltiner and Frank. L. Martin                     

5.2.4                    MetTh:504 Climatology and climate change (4 Credit)

                * Definition of climate

* Global annual & seasonal distribution of surface climatic variables – MSL pressure, Sea Surface     Temperature (SST), wind, air temperature, humidity and precipitation

                * Land and ocean airmasses – source regions and large-scale circulation

                * Climatology of natural disasters – tropical cyclones, norwesters, tornadoes, lightning,  floods, landslides,   droughts and their impacts

                * Nature and application of climate models

                * Future climate: global & regional 

                * Potential impact of Global, regional and sub-regional climate change on Bangladesh and adaptation/mitigation strategies   

                * Physical/dynamical reasoning to explain variability and change in climate

            * Climate information: products and services specific to application

 

Demonstration:

  • Exercise with daily data of temperature and pressure of Dhaka, Chittagong, Ishurdi and Sylhet for the period 1948-2015 or as available to prepare month wise long term climatology (Tools: Micrsoft Excell program). Plot the data and interpret the results.
  • Short and long term variation using the temporal plots of monthly, seasonal and annual data. Draw visual inferences and discuss the results.
  • Derive monthly mean climatology of rainfall, humidity and winds in Cox’s Bazar, Dhaka and Rajshahi
  • Temporal variation of rainfall and humidity
  • Analyze the spatial climatology of pressure, temperature, wind vectors and u, v components at different levels of atmosphere over the tropics and subtropics and analyze the major climatic features.
  • Students will solve any other problems as designed by the course teacher.

 

Books

Hastenrath,  Climate dynamics of the tropics.   Kluwer

IPCC, 2013, AR5 report: Climate Change. Physical Science Basis

IPCC 2013, AR5 report: Climate Change, Impacts, Adaptation and vunerability

IPCC 2013, AR5 report: Mitigation of climate change

Hartmann, Global physical climatology. Academic Press

Helmis, C., Nastos, P. T. Ed (2013) Advances in Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics

 John Marshall; R. Alan Plumb, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics by  Elsevier Science 1979

INTRODUCTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: LECTURE NOTES FOR METEOROLOGISTS Prepared by David D. Houghton

5.2.5                    MetTh:505 Satellite Meteorology (2 credit)

             * History of satellite technology – instrumentation and orbits

             * Rationale of satellite observations – visible, infrared and multispectral sensing

            * Derived parameters – albedo and temperature of cloud-free surfaces and cloud tops, vertical profiles of

                temperature and humidity, cloud drift winds, water vapour fields and motion vectors, precipitation.

             * Tropical cyclone monitoring and assessment using the advanced Dvorak method and AMSU observations.

            * Interpretation of imagery, uses and impact of data in NWP

 

MetLab:505 Satellite Meteorology (2 Credit)

  • Visual interpretation of satellite imagery in reflective, thermal infrared (window channels) and water vapour absorption bands for meteorological interpretation: use Local as well as Global Imagery from Geostationary Satellites.
  • Use imagery of full resolution for local details of surface characteristics from multispectral polar orbiting satellites.
  • Study the convective clouds using digital imagery- cloud top temperature at different stages of evolution of the convective clouds, thunderstorm systems and tornado system.
  • Use the hardcopy and digital images of satellite imagery for tropical cyclone interpretation (Dvorak techniques)
  • Draw vertical temperature and humidity profile for tropical convective systems, depressions and tropical cyclones using the retrieval of the ATOVS and AMSU data.

 

  •  

Stanley Q. Kidder, Thomas H. Vonder Haar, Satellite Meteorology: An Introduction 1st Edition

R R Kelkar, Satellite Meteorology, Second Edition

Mölders, Nicole, Kramm, Gerhard, Lectures in Meteorology, Springer

Su-Yin Tan, Meteorological Satellite Systems. Springer

Remote Sensing Applications in Meteorology and Climatology, Vaughan, R. A. (Ed) (1987)

A.  Deepak, Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding 

Elsevier Science 2012

        

5.2.6            MetTh:506 Urban climate and boundary layer (4 Credit)

     * Characteristic of Urban weather and climate

     * Urban heat island - features controlling development and intensity

     * Urban air quality – pollution sources, factors affecting concentration levels ( complex

        built environment, atmospheric stability, wind direction/speed)

     * Role of legislation in improving air quality

     * Urban flood risk: monsoon floods, coastal tidal floods and storm surges 

     * Urban boundary layer characteristics

 

 

Demonstration:

  • Take observations of temperature, winds, humidity at selected positions of Dhaka and outskirts by different teams at intervals of 1 hours at open places from 9:00-17:00 hours. Analyze and compare the collected data for micro climatic investigation.
  • Use satellite imagery to analyze the reflectivity and thermal characteristics of the city areas compared to the outskirts, Locate the heat islands in satellite thermal imagery. Show the moisture variations in the city areas and outside the city.
  • Study the activity of fog in the city and outskirts using the observation from satellites and compare those with the ground observation
  • The students will perform other exercised as assigned by the course teacher.

 

  •  

       J. C. Kaimal; J. J. Finnigan, Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows Oxford University Press 1994.

 

Baklanov; Alexander Baklanov; B. Grisogono,  Atmospheric Boundary Layers, Springer New York 2007;

 

      Urban Meteorology, Dept of Meteorology - University of Reading.

 

      From urban meteorology, climate and environment research to integrated city services, A.Baklanov, D.Carlson, D.Terblanche, X.Tang, B.Lee, V.Bouchetc,  G.Langendijk, R.K.Kolli, A.Hovsepyan

 

 Grimmond, C.S.B. 2006: Prof Sue Grimmond answers questions on urban climatology 

 

 

5.2.7        MetTh:507  Synoptic and Mesoscale Meteorology (2 Credit)

            * Observation systems – GTS system, surface and upper air observations, radar and satellite

             observations, ocean buoy observations. Plotting station data, data quality control, data assimilation,                 analysis of MSL  pressure, temperature, humidity and winds.

             * Monitor and observe current weather – produce analysis charts and interpret forecast charts.

                Incorporate radar and satellite observations.

              * Overview of synoptic-scale weather features including high pressure and low pressure systems,

                extra-tropical and tropical cyclones, ITCZ, troughs and ridges, frontal systems, airmasses and

                jetstreams.

             * Conceptual models of significant synoptic and mesoscale systems including their formation, evolution                         

                and associated weather including severe weather.

             * Use an upper air station array to produce maps of derived parameters such as vorticity,

                divergence and inferred vertical velocity.

            * Weather forecasting and warnings: process and application

 

  1. (2 Credit)

Tools: Manual and computer systems

  • Plotting GTS data for the South Asian and adjacent regions including the Arabean Sea and Bay of Bengal, quality check and plotting the data using standard meteorological symbols.
  • Analysis of charts ofPressure, geopotential height and Temperature data for lower and upper troposphere. Identify the low pressure, high pressure zones, Jet streams, etc,
  • Prepare the vertical thermodynamic charts based on radiosonde observation and calculate Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE).
  • Identify the pressure and temperature tendency in the charts, and analyze advection ofthe parameters by the winds; prepare prediction for meso-scale and synoptic scale weather based on all past (1-2 days before) and present information
  • Incorporate satellite and RADAR imagery and in generating future prediction
  • Prepare text for predictions of weather and make presentations MT08General Circulation

 

Books

Inness & Dorling.  Operational forecasting.     Wiley

        McIlveenm,   Fundamentals of weather and climate, Chapman and Hall

Thompson, Philip D. Numerical Weather Analysis and Prediction. Macmillan, New York, 1961. Google Scholar

Richardson, Lewis F. Weather Prediction by Numerical Process. Cambridge University Pr, Cambridge, 1922. MATH Google Scholar

Ducan Thompson, Philip D.,  A history of numerical weather prediction in the United States. In History of Meteorology in the United States: 1776–1976.  American Meteorology Society, 1978.

Operational Weather  Forecasting.  Peter Michael Inness, Steve Dorling , January 2013, Wiley-Blackwell

An Observer's Guide to Clouds and Weather{ A Northeastern Primer on Prediction. Toby Carlson, Paul Knight, Celia Wyckoff. 2014

C. Nick Hewitt; Andrea V. Jackson, Handbook of Atmospheric Science,  Wiley 2008;

 Gerald R. North; Tatiana L. Erukhimova,  Atmospheric Thermodynamics, Cambridge University Press 2009

 

5.2.8        MetTh:508: General Circulation (A,B) (4 Credit)

         * Global radiation annual and seasonal fields – solar and terrestrial, radiation balance

        * Large-scale annual and seasonal fluxes of heat and moisture, and transport mechanisms

        * Climate variability indices including teleconnections e.g. ENSO, IOD, NAO and MJO

        * Large-scale mean circulation features including the Hadley and Walker Circulations

        * Ozone depletion and high latitude stratospheric circulation

        * The Quasi- Biennial Oscillation (QBO)

 

     Demonstration:

Tools:   Computer analysis

  • Plot the Seasonal heat fluxes and OLR data and analyze the seasonal-spatial variations
  • Plot and analyze the heat and moisture fluxes, the transfer mechanism
  • Analyzing the global wind fields in lower and upper troposphereidentify the major areas of ascend and descend in tropics and explain the association of these features with vertical Hadley and Walker circulations..
  • Investigate the basic features of Tele-connection process with available data in the NOAA and other sites
  • The students will perform any other exercise assigned by the course teacher

 

  •  

James,   Introduction to circulating atmospheres, Cambridge University Press

Hoskins & James,   Fluid dynamics of the mid-latitude atmosphere,Wiley

E. Palmén and C. W. Newton, Circulation Systems. Their Structural and Physical Interpretation.. Academic Press, New York

Ochanan Kushnir (2000). The Climate System: General Circulation and Climate Zones.

Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics and General Circulation Models, Authors: Satoh, Masaki, springer

An Introduction to the Global Circulation of the Atmosphere,   
David Randall, Princeton University Press

 Global Atmospheric Circulations , by R. Grotjahn, Oxford Univ. Press ...

Introduction to Circulating Atmospheres (Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series).   I. N. James

Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-scale Circulation Hardcover– 6 Nov 2006, by Geoffrey K. Vall  

5.2.9        MetTh:509 Tropical weather and climate (2 Credit)

* Mean features of the tropical atmosphere – subtropical anticyclones, trade winds, equatorial trough, ITCZ,

          subtropical jet, Tropical easterly jet, African easterly jet

* The South Asian Monsoon –, Tibetan high and associated winds, seasonal & inter-annual variability, role of t Monsoon trough, Mascarene high, Tibetan High, Somali Jet and the Himalayas; onset and withdrawal of the monsoon, strong and break monsoons, monsoon depressions. West African monsoon

       * African Easterly waves

       * Tropical depressions and cyclones –Tropical cyclones (hurricanes, and typhoons), geographical and seasonal incidence, North Indian Ocean cyclone double maximum.  

       * Location and origin of hot deserts.

 

   

MetLab:509 Tropical weather and climate (2 Credit)

  • Plot the 100mb pressure and geopotential height at different tropospheric levels, winter and summer cases.
  • Then identify the high pressure, low pressure systems, troughs and ridges, trade winds in the lower levels, Equatorial Low Pressure Zone (ITCZ).
  • Identify the uppet atmospheric features, westerly troughs, Tibetan High pressure, Subtropical and tropical Jet streams. .
  • Identify subtropical fronts and take a east-west vertical section and show the horizontal variation of the temperature and moisture fields.
  • Analyze the cases of strong and break monsoons using pressure, temperature and cloud fields and derive the basic features differentiating of weak and strong monsoons.
  • Analyze the variation of tropical cyclone frequency over seasons in the Bay of Bengal using the data archives in IMD, BMD and JTWC.
  • The course teacher may assign any other assignment to the student to solve as practical work.

      

Books

An Introduction to the Meteorology and Climate of the Tropics by J. F. P. Galvin

 

Tropical Meteorology: An Introduction (Springer Atmospheric Sciences) 2013th Edition by  T.N. Krishnamurti, Lydia Stefanova, Vasubandhu Misra 

Forecasters' Guide to Tropical Meteorology: Gary D. Atkinson

Introduction to Tropical Meteorlogy by  Dr. Arlene Laing,  Dr.  Jenni-Louise Evans

 

Introduction to climate change - WMO Library

 

Introduction to Climate Change. David D. Houghton

 

Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-scale Circulation 1st Kindle Edition, by Geoffrey K. Valli

5.2.10    MetTh: 510  Agriculture and hydrometeorology (4 Credit)

* Global relationship of agriculture with climate

*Impacts of weather on tropical crops

*Estimation of evaporation/ evapo-transpiration, soil moisture, solar radiation and their relationship with agriculture

*The water balance calculation for tropical regime: Drought monitoring

*Satellite application in crop monitoring

* Impact of weather in agricultural value chain

* Weather forecast and issuing of agrometeorlogical advisory bulletins for crop risk management   

*Assessment of rainfall over river catchments from satellite

*Mapping and monitoring of floods using satellites and assessment of associated damage.

*Warning vulnerable communities of impending floods, heat waves and cold waves

* Impact of climate change on water and agriculture

 

Demonstration:

Tools:  Computer and analysis tools

  • Mapping of rainfall with satellite data
  • Assessment of soil moisture using satellite observation
  • Yield-climate relation: rice yield against Temperature (minimum, maximum), rainfall and humidity analysis using graphical method
  • Yield-climate relation: wheat yield against Temperature (minimum and maximum), rainfall and humidity analysis using graphical method
  • Assessment of drought indices Pre-kharif and kharif seasons
  • Estimation of avapotranspiration and water balance calculation for individual months
  • Using multi-spectral satellite data analyze the spectral sensitivity of crop, soil and water
  • Mappling of green vegetation / agricultural crops using satellite data
  • Flood monitoring and management using satellite data

 

Books

Climate and the Hydrological Cycle — Last modified November 21, 2008 10:51

 

Climate Change Impact and Adaptation in Agricultural Systems — Last modified July 22, 2014, Edited by J Fuhrer, Agroscope Research Station, Zurich, Switzerland, P Gregory, University of Reading, UK.

 

Applied Agrometeorology”, Kees Stigter (Ed.) (Springer, Heidelberg etc., 2010).

 

Drought assessment using SPI, remote sensing and modeling. New book on drought assessment using SPI, remote sensing and modeling.

 

Agrometeorology and Plant Diseases — The special issue of Scientia Agricola about "Agrometeorology and Plant Diseases" is now available on the web.

 

Policy and Strategic Behaviour in Water Resource Management — Policy and Strategic Behaviour in Water Resource Managemen. Edited by Ariel Dinar and Jose Albiac

 

 

5.2.11    MetTh:511   Aviation Meteorology (4 Credit)

* The atmosphere and aviation – historical perspective , Meteorological organizations

* Effect of pressure, density and temperature on flying– change of pressure, air density and temperature with altitude - altimetry terminology - ICAO standard atmosphere - QNH, QFE, QFF standard setting - transition altitude

* Impact of wind in aviation – Wind shear, cross wind, effect of wind gradient and wind shear on take-off and landing, turbulence and gustiness - mountain and valley winds

*Flying with Cloud- cloud types and flying conditions with special emphasis to thunderstorm flying

* Significance of fog, mist and haze- reduction of visibility due to mist, snow, smoke, dust and sand

*.Impact of Air mass and front on flying–Types and formation of air mass and  associated weather

* Ice accretion - conditions conducive to ice formation - effects of icing on aero-plane performance - precautions and avoidance

* Meteorological broadcasts for aviation –TAF, METAR, ATIS, SIGMET and VOLMET

 

Demonstration:

Reading of pressure from barometer, barograph and aneroid barometer; pressure corrected to standard condition; calculation of different pressure like QNH, QFE, QFF, etc.

Observation and reading of wind direction and speed from wind vane, wind sock, Beaufort scale, and anemometer; reporting of wind direction and speed.

Observation of clouds (amount, height & types), reporting criteria.

Observation of visibility with the help of visibility landmark, variation of visibility in different atmospheric obscurity like fog, mist, haze, dust, etc.  Reporting criteria of poor visibility.

Understanding of different WMO Meteorological codes like TAFOR, METAR, ATIS, SIGMET, VOLMET.

Reference Books

 

Handbook of Aviation Meteorology: By Meteorological Office (UK) – amazon.co.uk

 

Aviation Weather Handbook by Terry T. Lankford (1st edition)

 

Aviation Meteorology - by K.H. Hack

 

5.2.12    MetTh:512: Statistical Applications in Meteorology (4 Credit)

* Statistical moments of atmospheric data, generating climatology of atmospheric parameters, statistical probability distribution (normal distribution, Gamma distribution)

* Variability of atmospheric parameters using autocorrelation

* Fourier Transform, Spectral analysis and wevlet analysis

* Cross correlation, multiple correlation, linear and non-linear regression analysis, analysis of variance

* F-test, T-test and other tests of significance.

 

Demonstration:

Tools Computer: software-statistical package. MATLAB Mathematical Package,R statistical Package, Programming in Fortran,C++

  • Compute mean, median and mode and standard deviation using weather observation data
  • Cross correlation: correlation of ENSO index with pre-monsoon and monsoonrainfall (for Bangladesh)
  • Correlation of thunderstorm with rainfall and temperature (for Bangladesh)
  • Study the climate variability using time series analysis: Auto correlation analysis
  • Examples of estimation coefficients of Fourier Transform and calculation of periodogram
  • Examples of Power Spectrum Analysis and Wevlet analysis
  • Linear and polynomial regression for agroclimatic modeling for rice yield and weather parameters.

 

  •  

Statistical Inference and Prediction in Climatology Epstein, E. S. (Ed) (1985)

Time series analysis in meteorology & climate         Duchon & Hales     Wiley

Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciencesby Daniel S. Wilks

Statistical Inference and Prediction in Climatology Epstein, E. S. (Ed) (1985).

Time Series Analysis in Meteorology and Climatology,  An Introduction, by Claude DuchonRobert Hale

5.2.13    MetTh:13 Applicable mathematics, Numerical Modeling Techniques and Numerical Weather Prediction (ComputerBased) (4 Credit)

* Differential and integral calculus, matrix algebra, solution of ordinary differential equations, solution of second order differential equations

* Numerical modeling techniques – Taylor series expansion, finite difference formulation of atmospheric equations, time integration techniques, instability criteria, parameterization of physical parameters

* NWP – the process and products

 

Tools:Analytical tools, Numerical Techniques (Fortran and C++ programming), NWP-models

  • Solve mathematical problems as assigned by course teacher
  • For a given field at a rectangular grid with an interval of 10 m in X and Y between the grids, calculate the first order and second order special derivatives using Taylor’s expansion.
  • Solve the equation using forward integration technique from time i=0 to t=25, time step = 5 sec. is the solution stable?
  • Perform a case study using an existing NWP model in the lab

 

Books

Introduction to atmospheric modeling.  Steyn,  Cambridge University Press

 

Introduction to dynamical meteorology.  Holton,  Academic Press

 

General Circulation Models of the Atmosphere by Julius Chang, Elsevier Science

Thompson, Philip D. Numerical Weather Analysis and Prediction. Macmillan, New York, 1961. Google Scholar

Thompson, Philip D. Numerical Weather Analysis and Prediction. Macmillan, New York, 1961.Google Scholar

Richardson, Lewis F. Weather Prediction by Numerical Process. Cambridge University Pr, Cambridge, 1922.

Ducan Thompson, Philip D. A history of numerical weather prediction in the United States. In History of Meteorology in the United States: 1776–1976. American Meteorology Society, 1978.

Numerical Prediction and Dynamic Meteorology: George J. Haltiner and  Roger T. Williams .

Numerical-Prediction-Dynamic-Meteorology-Haltiner/dp/0471059714 on Amazon.com

Dynamic and Physical Meteorology by George J Haltiner and Frank. L. Martin                     

5.2.14          Met 14: Dissertation (Departmental or through an internship) (12 Credit)

The dissertation topics are to be determined by the team of supervisors

 

      * A piece of independent, guided research involving a comprehensive literature review and some contents related to original work based on e.g. data analysis, lab work, case studies